The most effective ones contain ingredients such as permethrin, imidacloprid, or dinotefuran that are lethal to the biting adult stage, and an “insect growth regulator” (e.g., methoprene, pyriproxyfen) that halts development of flea eggs and larvae. This medication helps to completely halt the reproduction process, which means that fleas will never be able to reach adulthood, creating more little fleas. Methoprene usage as an insecticide is expected to result in its direct release to the environment. It works by not allowing the target insect from reaching the point of maturity, which will halt the potential that it can reproduce. Methoprene is practically non-toxic to mammals, including us, so is generally safe to use. Dipping of cotton and tomato seedlings infested with eggs in pyriproxyfen resulted in over 90% suppression of egg hatch of both of these insects. Nevertheless, the recent advances in JH research are truly significant and are sure to serve as a platform for even greater discoveries going forward. (2011) reported that topical treatment of fipronil/methoprene mixtures prevented adult fleas in dogs. Controlling some of these insects, methoprene is used in the production of a number of foods including meat, milk, mushrooms, peanuts, rice and cereals. Methoprene is an off-the-shelf insect growth regulator (IGR). According to the EPA, the chemical methoprene is considered an insect growth regulator. Moreover, the emergence of MF as a potential endogenous regulator suggests that the complete repertoire of JH activity may involve the action of several JH-like compounds. See text for detailed explanations. It is used as an insecticide because it interferes with the normal maturation process. There is no question that when it comes to fleas, prevention is going to be the most effective treatment option. Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) used against a variety of insects including horn flies, mosquitoes, beetles, tobacco moths, sciarid flies, fleas (eggs and larvae), fire ants, pharoah ants, midge flies and Indian meal moths. Methoprene is by far the most thoroughly studied JHA. When is the best time to use Methoprene? However, the absence of a major visible phenotype clearly linking Met deficiency with metamorphosis, discouraged further inquiries on Met involvement in JH signaling. Precor: Pint container of Precor IGR, methoprene insect growth inhibitor for indoor flea control. Similarly, JH stimulates the nuclear translocation of Hsp90 and its phosphorylation, through the phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, in the cells of the lepidopteran H. armigera (Liu et al., 2013) (Fig. stage from developing into an adult flea. In Drosophila, germ cell-expressed (gce) is known as a paralog of Met (Godlewski, Wang, & Wilson, 2006), but only Met has been found in non-Drosophila insects (Charles et al., 2011; Wang, Baumann, & Wilson, 2007). Model for Met as a JH receptor in insects (A) and JH signaling pathway during larval–pupal commitment (B). Treatment of ingestion should consist of dilution with milk or water. The JH-Met+Tai complex binds to the JH response DNA motifs and activates the transcription of target genes (Charles et al., 2011; Kayukawa et al., 2012; Li et al., 2011, 2014; Zhang et al., 2011; Zou et al., 2013). It can be used against fleas, flies, moths, beetles, and other insects. Studies into the use of S-Methoprene showed that it works most efficiently when combined with … Use in the control of simulids and chironomids, nuisance flies, has been less frequently reported. Try Prime EN Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Cart. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), Charles et al., 2011; Wang, Baumann, & Wilson, 2007, Konopova & Jindra, 2007; Parthasarathy, Tan, & Palli, 2008, Charles et al., 2011; Godlewski et al., 2006, Molecular mechanisms regulating hormone production and action, Charles et al., 2011; Jindra et al., 2015b; Li et al., 2014, Bittova et al., 2019; Jindra et al., 2015b; Wen et al., 2015, Charles et al., 2011; Kayukawa et al., 2012; Li et al., 2011, 2014; Zhang et al., 2011; Zou et al., 2013, Target Receptors in the Control of Insect Pests: Part II, Edward B. Dubrovsky, Travis J. Bernardo, in, Sharon M. Gwaltney-Brant DVM, PhD, DABVT, DABT, in, The World Health Organization has approved, There is limited published information detailing adverse effects of, Parthasarathy Ramaseshadri, ... Subba Reddy Palli, in, Gingrich and Hopkins, 1977; Miller et al., 1977a,b; Paysinger and Adkins, 1977, Edwards and Clarke, 1978; Gusmao et al., 2011, Chamberlain, 1979; Chamberlain and Becker, 1978; Donahue and Young, 1992, 1996; Jacobs et al., 1996; Kawada and Hirano, 1996, Ishaaya and Horowitz, 1992, 1995; Ishaaya et al., 1994, Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology (Second Edition). Furthermore, if the PAS-B domain of T. castaneum, A. aegypti, or D. melanogaster Met/Gce is mutated, JH binding does not occur (Charles et al., 2011; Jindra et al., 2015b; Li et al., 2014). Consistently, the simultaneous mutation of Met and gce in D. melanogaster was lethal during the larva–pupa transition, which is precisely the period in which a deficiency of JH is also lethal (Abdou et al., 2011). Methoprene is a growth regulator which prevents the larvae of mosquitoes and other insects from becoming adults, by imitating insects’ natural juvenile hormone. Also, topical hypersensitivity reactions could occur with any dermal product. Methoprene is used in pest management programs for a variety of household and community pests: fleas, pharaoh ants, fireants, mosquitoes, cigarette beetles. Rather than killing insects, it controls them by interfering with normal hormone levels within the insect at critical development periods preventing growth and/or maturation. Methoprene and Pyriproxyfen (Zodiac FleaTrol Spot On; and BioSpot Flea and Tick Control) are known as insect growth regulators (IGR), both of which restrict the growth of fleas to the juvenile stage where reproduction is not possible. It contains both Methoprene and Permethrin that help to get rid of fleas and ticks. It is widely used for flea, mosquito and fly control either alone or in combination with another An 85 kDa protein isolated from the fat body of wild flies was found to bind with high affinity to JH III. Mutations of Tribolium Met within the ligand-binding pocket which disrupt JH binding did not affect the formation of the Met/Met dimer complex, but prevented the ligand-dependent dissociation of the Met/Met homodimer and the ligand-dependent interaction of Met with its partner SRC (Taiman) (Charles et al., 2011). Methoprene (sold commercially as Altosid) is one of the top two choices to purchase for adding to water. A very low exposure is expected through the diet. Decreased larval density was observed in the treated ponds (Krishnamoorthy et al., 1993). In order to fully control the flea population in your home or yard, you should also use an insecticide with IGR. As in the case of 20E receptor, the JH receptor is not a single protein. JH may also enter the cell by diffusion, then binding Met and stimulating the Hsp83-dependent nuclear import. 1-16 of 167 results for "methoprene" Skip to main search results Eligible for Free Shipping. Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) that gets rid of the larvae before reaching the adult stage. Met was discovered in 1986 in D. melanogaster as a gene that confers resistance to Methoprene, an insecticide chemically similar to JH (Wilson and Fabian, 1986). Virbac Knockout E.S. Because of this and its rapid biodegradation, methoprene does not persist for long periods in soil and is unlikely to contaminate groundwater. The ideal time to treat your home with an IGR to prevent bothersome infestations is right now, before reproduction becomes a problem. Keep in mind, these numbers are based on pets that spend most of their time indoors. Protect Your Home From Fleas and Eliminate Pet Odor, 16 Ounce. So, it’s important to treat immature fleas i.e. Sharon M. Gwaltney-Brant DVM, PhD, DABVT, DABT, in Small Animal Toxicology (Third Edition), 2013. Methoprene’s target pests include fleas, ticks, ants, roaches, bedbugs, and other stored product pests. 7.7B), to bugs, like P. apterus (Konopová et al., 2011). In addition to fleas, Methoprene works on many other types of insects. The same 85 kDa protein from Met flies showed a sixfold lower affinity for JH III (Shemshedini et al., 1990). Methoprene degrades rapidly in sunlight, both in water and on inert surfaces. Mosquitoes in coconut husk retting ponds. It has been used as a mosquito larvicide and for controlling many coleopterans, dipterans, homopterans, and siphonopterans (Harding, 1979). methoprene for fleas. Toxic Dose Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, are the most common ectoparasite on domestic cats and dogs (Figure 1).Dog fleas, C. canis,look like cat fleas but are rare in California.Sticktight fleas, Echidnophaga gallinacea, are commonly found on ground squirrels and poultry; the females firmly attach themselves along the ears and eyes of their host (Figure 2). How to Use Degradation in both freshwater and saltwater is also quite rapid with a half-life of 10–35 days at 20°C. was inhibited completely for more than 30 days when Altosid® 10F (methoprene) was added to the drain at 1 ppm (Kamei et al., 1982). The wall-bioassays showed that the micro-encapsulated formulations produced detectable mortality of T. infestens populations (Alarico et al., 2010). (A) Met depletion in the fourth larval instar (L4) of the holometabolan Tribolium castaneum; the control L4 molted to normal L5, successively to last larval instar (LL, usually L7 or L8, depending on the strain and rearing conditions) and then to pupa, whereas the Met-depleted L4 molted into precocious pupae. If the exposure is dermal, the treatment includes initial stabilization and bathing with a mild dishwashing detergent. There is limited published information detailing adverse effects of methoprene in dogs or cats; however, given the mechanism of action, clinical effects are expected to be mild. Methoprene is not very soluble in water (<2 ppm) and as a result is not highly mobile in soil. Methoprene was first registered for use in the United States in 1975 and s-methoprene was later registered in 1985. Methoprene is a type of medication that is useful for many different types of pests, including fleas. Methoprene has been used extensively against mushroom flies in compost (Keil and Othman, 1988), horn flies (Gingrich and Hopkins, 1977; Miller et al., 1977a,b; Paysinger and Adkins, 1977), and other dipteran pests of livestocks (Wright and Jones, 1976). The absence of developmental phenotypes in Met mutants of D. melanogaster was explained later, since in this species, Met has a paralog gene, germ cell-expressed (gce), with partially redundant functions with respect to Met, while T. castaneum has only one Met gene. Ingestion of any topical products may cause a taste reaction as a result of the inert ingredients. When you purchase treatment for your animals that contain methoprene to rid your home and pet of fleas, you should follow the directions provided by your vet; If you select a product that is considered a poison or other type of treatment containing methoprene, you should never apply this directly to your pet, as it could have severe consequences; The use of methoprene is not intended or able to kill adult fleas, but will only help to halt the reproduction. Xavier Belles, in Insect Metamorphosis, 2020. The other is a naturally found bacillus that targets mosquitoes, called Bti. Products containing methoprene include oral capsules, collars, topical spot-ons (in combination with fipronil) and sprays. Not approved for use in EU countries[115]. Some tips regarding methoprene and fleas include: The fact is that you can control fleas. The chemical also kills flea eggs by stopping them from hatching. Controlling some of these insects, methoprene is used in the production of a number of foods including meat, milk, mushrooms, peanuts, rice and cereals. Given the mechanism of action, prognosis is good in most cases. include corrosive oral injury, exposure to insoluble calcium oxalate-containing plants, and nontoxicant-related nausea. Eric M. Silberhorn, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), 2005. Kiyoshi Hiruma, Yu Kaneko, in Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 2013. 45 It is used in topical flea control products to help break the flea life cycle alone or in combination with adulticide products. It is metabolized rapidly in soil under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (half-life=10–14 days). (S)-Methoprene is an insect growth regulator, or more precisely, a juvenile hormone mimic. It was later reported that the Met gene product is a protein belonging to the bHLH/PAS family of transcription factors (Ashok et al., 1998). (B) Met depletion in the penultimate nymphal instar (N5) of the hemimetabolan Blattella germanica; the control group molted to normal last (N6) nymphal instar, whereas the Met-depleted nymphs molted into precocious adults (the arrow indicated the partially developed membranous wings). Once a flea infestation has started, mix methoprene IGR with an insecticide ( adulticide) to kill the adult fleas that will continue to hatch for about 6 weeks. The various topical treatments contain different insecticides such as permethrin, imidacloprid, and (S)-methoprene, which target specific parasites. This is a medication that can be used on cats and dogs, usually on a monthly or semi-monthly basis to hinder the reproductive capabilities of the fleas. Fleas can also transmit tapeworms or cause anemia, especially in small puppies. Methoprene is used against insects. Differential diagnoses for reactions to oral exposures (drooling, gagging, etc.) This JHA was used successfully for controlling white flies in cotton fields. Some laboratories can test for methoprene in hair and skin samples. For outdoor pets, the treatment may need to be more often in order to effectively control the infestation. Methoprene is considered of low mammalian toxicity, with an acute oral LD50 in the dog of greater than 5000 mg/kg. There are many methods of treatment and steps you can take to reduce and eliminate the presence of these pests. Treatment of ceramic and plywood tiles with fenoxycarb gave promising control of the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (Evans et al., 1995). Methoprene does not kill adult fleas. While some of these are clearly regulated by Met, others may be Met-independent or occur through mechanisms without transcriptional activation. It is a toxin that is specifically tailored to kill most kinds of fleas, as well as some kinds of ticks and parasites. Ideally, spray methoprene before a flea infestation starts as a preventive measure. Mild toxicity to birds and some aquatic organisms has been observed. Hypersensitivity skin reactions could occur with any topical product. Killing adult fleas is never enough because there’s high probability of their eggs/larvae still enjoying the stay. Frontline Plus for cats is a topical 'spot-on' application for flea treatment on cats and kittens. Pests, such as ants (Edwards and Clarke, 1978; Gusmao et al., 2011) and fleas (Chamberlain, 1979; Chamberlain and Becker, 1978; Donahue and Young, 1992, 1996; Jacobs et al., 1996; Kawada and Hirano, 1996) have been controlled by methoprene in hospitals and education facilities.