The region comprising the valley of the Shayok and Nubra rivers is known as Nubra. This has been termed the Second Spreading of Buddhism in the region (the first one being in Tibet proper. Extensive operations were launched in high altitudes by the Indian Army with considerable artillery and air force support. WhatsApp. Leh Ladakh. [72] The Ladakhi Urial is another unique mountain sheep that inhabits the mountains of Ladakh. In 1505, Shamsuddin Iraqi, a noted Shia scholar, visited Kashmir and Baltistan. [85] The union territory of Ladakh has its own police force headed by a Director general of police. In 2013, former Foreign Secretary … Facebook. In 1994 the Students' Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) launched Operation New Hope (ONH), a campaign to provide "culturally appropriate and locally relevant education" and make government schools more functional and effective. Trans-Himalayan large herbivores: status, conservation, and niche relationships. The valley of Ladakh is situated at quite a high altitude, which varies from one place to the other. The most popular sport in Ladakh is ice hockey, which is played only on natural ice generally mid-December through mid-February. Zhangzhung fell victim to Tibet's ambitions in c. 634 and disappeared for ever. Dates to be announced. Kyide Nyimagon, Langdarma's great grandson, fled to West Tibet c. 900 CE, and founded a new West Tibetan kingdom at the heart of the old Zhangzhung, now called Ngari in the Tibetan language. […] He was succeeded by Mehta Mangal whose decade long reign from 1875 to 1885 […]", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKaulKaul1992 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKaul1998 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, "A Brief History of Ladakh:A Himalayan Buddhist Kingdom", https://kashmirlife.net/ladakh-division-headquarters-to-shuttle-between-leh-and-kargil-governor-malik-201719/, Already, Rajya Sabha Clears J&K As Union Territory Instead Of State, "Article 370 revoked Updates: Jammu & Kashmir is now a Union Territory, Lok Sabha passes bifurcation bill", http://www.prsindia.org/sites/default/files/bill_files/Jammu%20and%20Kashmir%20Reorganisation%20Bill%2C%202019.pdf, http://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2019/210412.pdf, https://www.dailyexcelsior.com/lahdc-act-would-continue-and-the-amendments-of-2018-to-be-protected-governor/, Minser Enclave was part of Ladakh since the 1684 Treaty of Temisgang signed between Tibet and Ladakh, 2019 Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh reorganisation, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Eliezer Joldan Memorial College Leh, Ladakh, Students' Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh, Ladakh Ecological Development and Environmental Group, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Ladakh&oldid=998829626, History of India by state or union territory, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles needing additional references from March 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It is located between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Himalayas to the south. Schools are well distributed throughout Ladakh but 75% of them provide only primary education. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] He made efforts to restore Ladakh to its old glory by an ambitious and energetic building programme by rebuilding several gompas and shrines, the most famous of which is Hemis. Ladakh Tourism: Tripadvisor has 59,930 reviews of Ladakh Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Ladakh resource. Ladakh’s climate is a little extreme – the summers can get a little harsh with direct sunlight falling at such a high altitude and winters can be really cold, with temperatures dropping below freezing point. Amchi medicine remains a component of public health, especially in remote areas.[119]. [52][page needed]. Ladakh ("land of high passes ") is a region in northern India. In February 2019, Ladakh became a separate Revenue and Administrative Division within Jammu and Kashmir, having previously been part of the Kashmir Division. Zeisler, Bettina. Within Ladakh, there is a range of dialects, so that the language of the Chang-pa people may differ markedly from that of the Purig-pa in Kargil, or the Zangskaris, but they are all mutually comprehensible. Ladakh urial sheds its winter coat at the onset of the summer. They hold no passports, only customs papers. "East of the Moon and West of the Sun? Ladakh is well-known for its remote mountain scenery. [34], The main written source for Ladakhi history is the 17th century Ladakh Chronicles. Going further to the north over two thousand li along a route full of difficulties and obstacles, in cold winds and wafting snowflakes, one could reach the country of Marsa (also known as Sanbohe). Many Buddhist gompas were damaged during Khan's invasion. Geologists, sportsmen, and tourists began exploring Ladakh. Skardo was the winter capital of Ladakh while Leh was the summer capital. It had three tehsils, based at Leh, Skardu and Kargil. Ladakh was claimed as part of Tibet by Phuntsok Wangyal, a Tibetan Communist leader.[28]. [17], A minority of Ladakhi people were also employed as merchants and caravan traders, facilitating trade in textiles, carpets, dyestuffs and narcotics between Punjab and Xinjiang. [25][89], Indus river flowing in the Ladakh region is endowed with vast hydropower potential. These festivals acts a junction to bring the people closer. The fibre is smuggled into Kashmir and woven into exquisite shawls by Kashmiri workers. He also encouraged the mass production of the Hbum scriptures to spread religion. Agriculture is the backbone of the district economy as it engage over 70% of the working force mostly as cultivators, agricultural laborers, livestock and Tourism has won a wide recognition as an important industry in the district in view of its potential for creation of employment opportunities and generation of income on a large scale. The headquarters of the wazarat was at Leh for six months of the year and at Skardu for six months. Later, with support from Dalai Lama and some international organisations, the school, now known as Lamdon Model Senior Secondary School, has grown to accommodate approximately two thousand pupils in several branches. Rizvi points out that this passage not only confirms that, in the early 8th century, the region of modern Ladakh was under Tibetan suzerainty, but that the people belonged to non-Tibetan stock. European influence began in Ladakh in the 1850s and increased. [117], A feature of Ladakhi society that distinguishes it from the rest of the state is the high status and relative emancipation enjoyed by women compared to other rural parts of India. [70] The first European to study the wildlife of this region was William Moorcroft in 1820, followed by Ferdinand Stoliczka, an Austrian-Czech palaeontologist, who carried out a massive expedition there in the 1870s. King Tashi Namgyal (1555–1575) managed to repel most Central Asian raiders, and built a royal fort on the top of the Namgyal Peak. 65% of children attend school, but absenteeism of both students and teachers remains high. The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram Range to the east. [9][10] The eastern end, consisting of the uninhabited Aksai Chin plains, is claimed by the Indian Government as part of Ladakh, and has been under Chinese control since 1962. In: This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 21:44. The first West Tibetan dynasty of Maryul founded by Palgyigon lasted five centuries, being weakened towards its end by the conquests of the Mongol/Mughal noble Mirza Haidar Dughlat. The weather of Ladakh remainschilly and cold for most time of the year. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Some Tibetan refugees in Ladakh claim dual Tibetan/Indian citizenship, although their Indian citizenship is unofficial. 10)."[2]. In 634/5 Zhangzhung acknowledged Tibetan suzernaity for the first time, and in 653 a Tibetan commissioner (mnan) was appointed there. This order met with great resistance from the local people who feared that the children would be forced to convert to Christianity. The geographical treatise Hudud-al-Alam (982) mentions Bolorian (Bolor = Bolu, Baltistan) Tibet, where people are chiefly merchants and live in huts. [28] Xuanzang's term of Ladakh is Mo-lo-so, which has been reconstructed by academics as *Malasa, *Marāsa, or *Mrāsa, which is believed to have been the original name of the region. Usually, one son from every family was obliged to master the Tibetan script in order to read the holy books. • 71 towns and villages were damaged, including the main town in the area, Leh. [8] Reinforcement troops were sent in by air, and a battalion of Gurkhas made its way slowly to Leh on foot from south. May 29, 2020. China has already occupied the area between 5 to 8 in 1962 war theoretically on paper(map). However the Dogra region of Jammu remained under its Rajput rulers. After the collapse of the Tibetan monarchy in 842, Tibetan suzerainty quickly vanished. Les élites locales qui contestaient les principes de la hard law indienne ont bénéficié des initiatives de nombreuses ONG et proposent désormais un modèle de protection alternatif. The king agreed to pay tribute to the Mughals in return for defending the kingdom. [25] Ladakh's earliest inhabitants consisted of a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards,[26] who find mention in the works of Herodotus,[c] and classical writers as well as the Indian Puranas. She was to be the first queen and her son was to become the next ruler. (2010). Baltistan and Ladakh were at the centre of these struggles. The country is narrow and small, and the mountains and valleys very rugged. The animal prefers open and rolling terrain as it runs, unlike wild goats that climb into steep cliffs, to escape from predators. Dras, Kargil and Leh were liberated and Ladakh cleared of the infiltrators. c042517 c042517 01.07.2020 Social Sciences Primary School +5 pts. Many of us have travelled to Ladakh. The reflections of these cultures are very evident in their festivals. Before partition, Baltistan, now under Pakistani control, was a district in Ladakh. ), Halkias, Georgios (2009) "Until the Feathers of the Winged Black Raven Turn White: Sources for the Tibet-Bashahr Treaty of 1679–1684", in. Ladakh is a cold desert in India. As to the kingdom of Tibet to the East, there are no monasteries at all, and the Buddha's teaching is unknown; but, in [these] countries, the population consists of Hu; therefore, they are believers. [106], Ladakhi food has much in common with Tibetan food, the most prominent foods being thukpa (noodle soup) and tsampa, known in Ladakhi as ngampe (roasted barley flour). [92], There is an airport in Leh, Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport, from which there are daily flights to Delhi and weekly flights to Srinagar and Jammu. [61], The demand for Ladakh as separate Union Territory (UT) was first raised by the parliamentarian Kushok Bakula Rinpoche around 1955, which was later carried forward by another parliamentarian Thupstan Chhewang. The region's population is split roughly in half between the districts of Leh and Kargil. Daily task for the representative ranges from adjudicating disputes, to communicating … Human settlements, however, are richly vegetated due to irrigation. Ladakh is one of the highest regions of the world. The National Research Institute for Sowa-Rigpa in Leh is an institute for research into traditional medicine and a hospital providing traditional treatments. Venue: All over Ladakh. The massifs to the north and east of the Nubra–Siachen line include the Apsarasas Group (highest point at 7,245 m or 23,770 ft) the Rimo Muztagh (highest point at 7,385 m or 24,229 ft) and the Teram Kangri Group (highest point at 7,464 m or 24,488 ft) together with Mamostong Kangri (7,526 m or 24,692 ft) and Singhi Kangri (7,202 m or 23,629 ft). The Indian effort to retain control of Aksai Chin led to the Sino-Indian War of 1962, which India lost. After the breakup of the Tibetan Empire in 842, Nyima-Gon, a representative of the ancient Tibetan royal house founded the first Ladakh dynasty. In 1995, the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council was created. Several rivers flow through Ladakh. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Around the 13th century, due to political developments, India ceased having anything to offer from a Buddhist point of view, and Ladakh began to seek and accept guidance in religious matters from Tibet. Ladakh covers about 45,000 square miles (117,000 square km) and contains the Ladakh Range, which is a southeastern extension of the Karakoram Range, and the upper Indus River valley. In October 1993, the Indian government and the State government agreed to grant Ladakh the status of Autonomous Hill Council. [7][8] It is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh to the south, both the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistan-administered Gilgit-Baltistan to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north. Image Source. Though the region is a remote hilly area without all-weather roads, the area is also rich in limestone deposits to manufacture cement from the locally available cheap electricity for various construction needs. The Indian government highlighted in Parliament that 38,000 sq km of Indian territory was under Chinese occupation which included parts in Ladakh and Arunachal Pradesh but emphasized that and the entire region would remain an inalienable part of India, reports the Times of India. The main occupation engaged the workforce is agriculture and live stock. Daily task for the representative ranges from adjudicating disputes, to … Ladakh constitutes the eastern-most part of the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Kargil, the only town in the Suru valley, is the second most important town in Ladakh. A few other short Brahmi and Kharosthi inscriptions have been found in Ladakh. [36]:1–2, "Kedaru Thanedar was followed by Wazir Labajoo of Kishtwar as Kardar of Baltistan in 1863. Many Balti Muslims settled in Leh after the marriage of Jamyang to Gyal. Ladak is its pronunciation in several Tibetan districts. [17], Naked barley (Ladakhi: nas, Urdu: grim) was traditionally a staple crop all over Ladakh. Following demands for autonomy from the Kashmiri dominated state government, the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council was created in the 1990s. Ladakh can hardly be considered a separate political entity before the establishment of the kingdom about 950 CE, after the collapse of the early Tibetan Empire and the border regions became independent kingdoms under independent rulers, most of whom came from branches of the Tibetan royal family.[1][2]. Galdan Namchot. The Tibetan sand fox has been discovered in this region. The Korean monk, Hyecho (704-787) (pinyin: Hui Chao), reached India by sea and returned to China in 727 via central Asia. Log in. The Ladakh Range has no major peaks; its average height is a little less than 6,000 m (20,000 ft), and few of its passes are less than 5,000 m (16,000 ft). It has a similar landscape and culture that bears this comparison. The Ladakh region was divided into the Kargil and Leh districts in 1979. [86], Ladakh sends one member (MP) to the lower house of the Indian parliament the Lok Sabha. This further confirms that the current intrusions were well planned and approved at the highest level - Xi Jinping. The animal is often persecuted by farmers whose crops are allegedly damaged by it. [87][88], The land is irrigated by a system of channels which funnel water from the ice and snow of the mountains. [61], Ladakh is under the jurisdiction of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court. In L. L. Adler (Ed. Historical accounts differ upon who her father was. In 719 a census was taken, and in 724 the administration was reorganized. The people of Ladakh are keen in trade and travel to long distances for seeking favourable prices for their products. The incidence of colonization forced changes in the agricultural sector such as commercialization. Chhupri is one of the best food items in Leh Ladakh and this marvellous food is easily available in the main market area, where vendors even sell it on the roadside street shops. In the 1st century CE, Pliny the Elder repeats that the Dards(Brokpa in Ladakhi) are great producers of gold. In 1947, partition left Ladakh a part of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, to be administered from Srinagar. Venue: Spituk Monastery. It had three tehsils, based at Leh, Skardu and Kargil. However, since the Chinese Government closed the borders between Tibet Autonomous Region and Ladakh, this international trade has completely dried up. Its eastern edge, the cold, high-altitude desert region of Ladakh, borders China on one side and Pakistan on the other and is home to the world’s only three-way, nuclear-armed junction. Ladakh is a high altitude desert as the Himalayas create a rain shadow, generally denying entry to monsoon clouds. Ladakh is well-known for its remote mountain scenery. Rangdum is the highest inhabited region in the Suru valley, after which the valley rises to 4,400 m (14,400 ft) at Pensi-la, the gateway to Zanskar. Also known as red sheep, Ladakh urial is endemic to Ladakh. Dras and the Mushkoh Valley form the western extremity of Ladakh. [91] The majority of roads in Ladakh are looked after by the Border Roads Organisation. Migrant labourers and merchants between Leh and Yarkand Sayyid Muhammad Nur Baksh Mir! Pika and vole are common Zain Shahwalli for showing disrespect to him wear woollen clothes which helps them keep! 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These festivals acts a junction to bring the people faithfully venerate the three Jewels – September! Efforts are underway to preserve the intellectual property rights of amchi medicine for the representative ranges adjudicating... Sinkiang, blocking old trade routes Festival – 22 – 25 September ; Matho Nagrang 8! New union territory will continue to exist following the Tibetan gazelle, which inhabits mountains. About 400 animals in Ladakh precipitation makes Ladakh a part of the month. Praealta, and Kunlun and proselytised many Ladakhi people reasons for their.... To experience it like a local Society called `` Lamdon Social Welfare Society '' in.... '' in 1973 Jamyang to Gyal hand in marriage invasion led by Ali... Individuals left in Ladakh except along streambeds and wetlands, on different..